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Changing the Way We CareSM is about the deinstitutionalization of children. It is about ensuring children thrive in families. It is about parents succeeding and being able to care for their children, helping them achieve a healthy, productive life. Changing the Way We Care begins by educating and advocating for family based care. Changing the Way We Care is a global movement that needs all of us.

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Further Reading

The Situation of Children & Residential Care

Ainsworth, F. & Foburn, J. (2014). An exploration of the differential usage of residential childcare across national boundaries. International Journal of Social Welfare, 23(1): 16-24.

Behal, N., Cusworth, L., Wade, J., & Clarke, S. (2014). Keeping children safe: Allegations concerning the abuse or neglect of children in care.  United Kingdom: NSPCC. Retrieved from http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/spru/research/pdf/Abuseincare.pdf

Berens, A. E., & Nelson, C. A. (2015). The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children? The Lancet, 386(9991), 388-398.

Better Care Network. (2017). Violence Against Children and Care in Africa: A Discussion Paper. New York. Retrieved from: http://bettercarenetwork.org/sites/default/files/BCN_VAC_and_Care_Report_single_page_17102017_0.pdf

Better Care Network. (2017). Violence Against Children and Care in Africa: A Discussion Paper. New York. Retrieved from  http://bettercarenetwork.org/sites/default/files/BCN_VAC_and_Care_Report_single_page_17102017_0.pdf

Better Care Network. (2009). Global facts about orphanages: Better options for children in orphanages. Retrieved from http://handstohearts.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Global-Fact-Sheet-on-Orphanages_BetterCareNetwork.pdf

Boothby, N., Balster, R. L., Goldman, P., Wessells, M. G., Zeanah, C. H., Huebner, G., & Garbarino, J. (2012). Coordinated and evidence-based policy and practice for protecting children outside of family care. Child Abuse & Neglect36(10), 743-751.

Bos, K. J., Zeanah, C. H., Smyke, A. T., Fox, N. A., & Nelson, C. A. (2010). Stereotypies in children with a history of early institutional care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 406-411.

Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal care and mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/40724/1/WHO_MONO_2_(part1).pdf

Brodie, I., & Pearce, J. (2017). Violence and alternative care: a rapid review of the evidence. Psychology, Health & Medicine,22(Sup1), 254-265. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2BnLQQz

Brown, K. (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. London: Save the Children.

Bunkers, K. M. (2010). Improving care options for children through understanding institutional child care and factors driving institutionalization. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: FHI. Retrieved from https://www.crin.org/en/docs/Ethiopia%20Child%20Care%20Institution%20Study%20report-FHI-Jun%2710.pdf

Bunkers, K., Cox, A., Gesiriech, S., & Olson, K. (2014). Children, orphanages, and families: A summary of research to help guide faith-based action. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Faith2Action_ResearchGuide_V9_WEB.pdf

Bunkers, K., Cox, A., Gesiriech, S., & Olson, K. (2014). Key research on orphanages and family care: An annotated bibliography. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Key-Research-Annotated-Bibliography.pdf

Callahan, S., Mulheir, G., & Goldman, P. (2017, July 13). The orphan myth: Exposing the truth about orphanages. Retrieved from https://cruxnow.com/global-church/2017/07/12/orphan-myth-exposing-truth-orphanages/

Catholic Relief Services (2017) American Perceptions of Orphans and Orphanages: An Opinion Survey (Rep.) Retrieved from http://www.changingthewaywecare.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/American-Perceptions-of-Orphans-and-Orphanages-An-Opinion-Survey-FINAL.pdf

Catholic Relief Services (2017) Finding Families: The State of Residential Care for Children and Implications for Human Development(Issue brief). Retrieved from https://www.changingthewaywecare.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CRS_FINDING-FAMILIES_SUMMARY_111617.pdf

Catholic Relief Services (2017) Finding Families: The State of Residential Care for Children and Implications for Human Development: A Research Review (Rep.) Retrieved from https://www.changingthewaywecare.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/CRS-REPORT_FINDING-FAMILIES-111617.pdf

Cheer, J. M., Goldsworthy, K., Matthews, L., & Kanodia, S. (2017). Modern slavery and tourism: when holidays and human exploitation collide. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/modern-slavery-and-tourism-when-holidays-and-human-exploitation-collide-78541

Costa, M. & Giraldi, M. (2014). Opening doors for Europe’s children: Deinstitutionalisation and quality alternative care for children in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: Eurochild. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2gvGT34

Csáky, C. (2009). Keeping children out of harmful institutions: Why we should be investing in family-based care. London: Save the Children. Retrieved from https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/docs/Keeping_Children_Out_of_Harmful_Institutions_Final_20.11.09_1.pdf

Delap, E. (2011). Scaling down: Reducing, reshaping and improving residential care around the world. London: EveryChild.

Delap, E. (2013). Towards a family for every child: A conceptual framework. London: Family for Every Child. Retrieved from: http://www.familyforeverychild.org/report/towards-a-family-for-every-child-a-conceptual-framework/

Delap, E. & Saunders, C. (2012). Enabling reform: Why supporting children with disabilities must be at the heart of successful child care reform. London: EveryChild and New York: Better Care Network. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2xTIdzl

Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. (2009). Report of the ad hoc expert group on the transition from institutional to community-based care. Brussels: European Commission.

England Department for Education. (2014). Guide to the children’s homes: Regulations including the quality standards. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1S26fum

Euser, S., Alink, L.R., Tharner, A., van Ijzendoorn, M.H., Bakersman-Kranenburg M.J. (2014). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: a comparison between abuse in residential and in foster care. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 29(1): 83-92.

Frimpong‐Manso, K. (2014). From walls to homes: Child care reform and deinstitutionalisation in Ghana. International Journal of Social Welfare23(4), 402-409.

Ghana Business News (GBN). (2013). Social welfare department defines conditions for placing children in orphanages. Retrieved from http://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2013/03/15/social-welfare-department-definesconditions-for-placing-children-in-orphanages/

Ghera, M. M., Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., Zeanah, C. H., Nelson, C. A., Smyke, A. T., & Guthrie, D. (2009). The effects of foster care intervention on socially deprived institutionalized children’s attention and positive affect: results from the BEIP study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(3), 246-253.

Giagazoglou, P., Kouliousi, C., Sidiropoulou, M., & Fahantidou, A. (2012). The effect of institutionalization on psychomotor development of preschool aged children. Research in Developmental Disabilities33(3), 964-970.

Hart, D., Valle, I.L., & Holmes, L. (2016). The place of residential care in the English child welfare system. United Kingdom: Department for Education. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1TZX9mF

Hermenau, K.; Hecker, T.; Elbert, T.; Ruf-Leuschner, M.  (2014). Maltreatment and mental health in institutional care – comparing early and late institutionalized children in Tanzania. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35(2), 102-110.

Hope and Homes (2012). National Survey of Institutions for Children in Rwanda. Salisbury, UK: Hope and Homes. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2l34tWv

Human Rights Watch. (2014). Without dreams: Children in alternative care in Japan. New York: Human Rights Watch. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/japan0514_ForUpload_0.pdf

Januario, K., Hembling, J., Rytter, A. & Roby, J. (2016). Factors related to the placement into and reintegration of children from Catholic-affiliated residential care facilities in Zambia. Baltimore, MD: Catholic Relief Services.

John, E. A. (2017, July 21). 17,000 from child care homes reunited with parents in 6 yrs in Tamil Nadu – Times of India. Retrieved  from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/1700-from-child-care-homes-reunited-with-parents-in-6-yrs-in-tn/articleshow/59689847.cms

Johnson, D. E., & Gunnar, M. R. (2011). IV. Growth failure in institutionalized children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,76(4), 92-126.

Johnson, D. E., Dovbnya, S. V., Morozova, T. U., Richards, M. A., & Bogdanova, J. G. (2014). From institutional care to family support: Development of an effective early intervention network in the Nizhny Novgorod region, Russian Federation, to support family care for children at risk for institutionalization. Infant Mental Health Journal35(2), 172-184.

Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., Bates, G., Mikton, C., Shakespeare, T., & Officer, A. (2012). Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The Lancet380 (9845), 899-907.

Keshavarzian, G. (2014). Research report for SOS Children’s Village: External scan research on violence against children and child abandonment. SOS Children’s Villages International.

Keshavarzian, G. (2015). Global literature scan on the situation of children and young people without parental care or at risk of losing it: Final report. SOS Children’s Villages International.

Krnic-Brkovic, N. (2015). Compendium of promising practices to ensure that children under the age of 3 grow up in a safe and supportive family environment. Geneva: UNICEF. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/UNICEF_Compendium_of_promising_practices_Web.pdf

Lamberty, K. & Collins, N. (2017, unpublished). Final report: Children’s residential care project in Haiti funding stream analysis: Survey of U.S. Catholic partners. Catholic Relief Services.

Lionetti, F., Pastore, M., & Barone, L. (2015). Attachment in institutionalized children: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect.

Lumos. (2014). Children in institutions: The global picture. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/1.Global%20Numbers_2_0.pdf

Lumos. (2014). Children in institutions: The risks. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/content/children-institutions-risks

Lumos. (2014). Ending the institutionalisation of children globally: The time is now. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/Lumos%20The%20Time%20is%20Now%20April2014%20FINAL.pdf

Lumos. (2016). Orphanage entrepreneurs: The trafficking of Haiti’s invisible children. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/Haiti%20Trafficking%20Report_ENG_WEB_NOV16.pdf

Lumos. (2017.) Funding Haitian orphanages at the cost of children’s rights. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/EMBLumos%20-%20Funding%20Haitian%20Orphanages%20JUNE17.pdf

Marshall, P. & Fox, N.A. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8):1327-38.

Matějček, Z., & Langmeier, J. (1964). Psychická deprivace v dětství [Mental deprivation in childhood]. Prague: Avicenum.

McCall, R. B., & Groark, C.J. “Research on institutionalized children: Implications for international child welfare practitioners and policymakers.” International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 4.2 (2015): 142.

McLean, S. (2016, June 1). The effect of trauma on the brain development of children (Tech.). Retrieved http://bit.ly/2AL2LjH

Milovanović, D.C., et al. (2013). The hidden and forgotten: Segregation and neglect of children and adults with disabilities in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia: Mental Disability Rights International. Retrieved from http://www.mdri-s.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/the-hidden-and-forgotten-2013-12-17.pdf

Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation. (2011). With the best of intentions. A study of attitudes towards residential care in Cambodia. UNICEF.

Muhamedrahimov, R. J., Nikoforova, N. V., Palmov, O. I., Groark, C. J., McCall, R. B., & Fish, L. (2005). Characteristics of children, caregivers, and orphanages for young children in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology26(5), 477-506.

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2012). The science of neglect: The persistent absence of responsive care disrupts the developing brain: Working paper 12. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu

Nelson, C.A, Zeanah, C.H., Castle, J., et al. (2007). Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science. 318(5858): 1937-1940.

Nelson, C. A., Bos, K., Gunnar, M. R., & Sonuga‐Barke, E. J. (2011). V. The neurobiological toll of early human deprivation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development76(4), 127-146.

Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2013). Anguish of the abandoned child. Scientific American308(4), 62-67.

Perry, B.D. (2001). The neurodevelopmental impact of violence in childhood. In D. Schetky & E. Benedek (Eds.), Textbook of child and adolescent forensic psychiatry (221-238). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc

Pinheiro, P.S. (2006). World report on violence against children. Geneva:  United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/lac/full_tex(1).pdf

C. (2017, July 20). Právo: More Czech children returning from institutions to parents. Prague Daily Monitor. Retrieved from http://bettercarenetwork.org/sites/default/files/Pra%CC%81vo-%20More%20Czech%20children%20returning%20fr…stitutions%20to%20parents%20%7C%20Prague%20Monitor.pdf

Pryce, J. M., Jones, S. L., Wildman, A., Thomas, A., Okrzesik, K., & Kaufka-Walts, K. (2016). Aging out of care in Ethiopia: Challenges and implications facing orphans and vulnerable youth. Emerging Adulthood4(2), 119-130.

Puras, D. (2011). The rights of vulnerable children under the age of three: Ending their placement in institutional care. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights.

Red Latinoamerica de Acogimiento Familiar (RELAF). (2010). Children and adolescents without parental care in Latin America. Contexts, causes and consequences of being deprived of the right to family and community life. Buenos Aires. Retrieved from http://relaf.org/REPORT_Relaf.pdf

Richter, L. M., & Norman, A. (2010). AIDS orphan tourism: A threat to young children in residential care. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies5(3), 217-229.

Roby, J. L., Rotabi, K., & Bunkers, K. M. (2013). Social justice and intercountry adoptions: The role of the US social work community. Social Work58(4), 295-303.

Rus, A. P., Parris, S. R., & Stativa, E. (2017). Child Maltreatment in Residential Care History, Research, and Current Practice. Springer Verlag.

Rus, A.V. (2012). Child abuse in residential care institutions in Romania. Texas Christian University. Retrieved from https://repository.tcu.edu/bitstream/handle/116099117/4430/Rus_tcu_0229D_10291.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Rutter, M. (1998). Development catch-up, and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(4): 465-476

Save the Children. (2014). Institutional Care: The last resort: Policy brief. Retrieved from: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/resources/online-library/policy-brief-institutional-care-last-resort

Schoenmaker, C. et al. (2014). Does family matter? The well-being of children growing up in institutions, foster care and adoption. Handbook of Child Well-being, 76: 2197-2228.

Sherr, L., Roberts, K. J., & Gandhi, N. (2017). Child violence experiences in institutionalised/orphanage care. Psychology, Health & Medicine22(sup1), 31-57.

SOS Children’s Villages International. (2014). A solid investment – integrating children without parental care into the post-2015 development framework. Retrieved from http://www.sos-childrensvillages.org/getmedia/e0ad694c-574d-411b-817b-d000f8a53f43/Publication_Equality_A4_EF_web.pdf

Stoltenborgh,M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., and van IJzendoorn, M.(2013). The neglect of child neglect: a meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48:345–355.

UNICEF. (2009). Progress for children: A report card on child protection. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_50921.html

UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS. (2010). At home or in a home? Formal care and adoption of children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. UNICEF.

United Nations General Assembly. (2010). Guidelines for the alternative care of children. Retrieved from http://bettercarenetwork.org/docs/Guidelines-English.pdf

U.S. Agency for International Development. (2009). U.S. Government and partners: Working together on a comprehensive, coordinated and effective response to highly vulnerable children. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pdacn600.pdf

Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Luijk, M. P., & Juffer, F. (2008). IQ of children growing up in children’s homes: A meta-analysis on IQ delays in orphanages. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly54(3), 341-366.

Violence Against Children in All Care Settings: Africa Expert Consultation(Rep.). (2017). Nairobi. doi: http://bit.ly/2BnLQQz

Wenke, D. (2015). Family support and alternative care: The Baltic Sea states regional report 2015. Stockholm: Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2yD46GK

Williamson, J. & Greenberg, A. (2010). Families, not orphanages: Better care network working paper. Retrieved from http://bettercarenetwork.org/BCN/details.asp?id-23328&themeID-1003&topicID-1023

Zeanah, C. H., Egger, H. L., Smyke, A. T., Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., Marshall, P. J., & Guthrie, D. (2009). Institutional rearing and psychiatric disorders in Romanian preschool children. American Journal of Psychiatry166(7), 777-785.

Our Solution & Evidence of Effectiveness

Andrews, S. (2017). The Role Of Para-Social Workers In Creating Community-Led Approaches To Preventing And Responding To Child Abuse (pp. 1-8, Rep.). Catholic Relief Services. Retrieved http://bettercarenetwork.org/sites/default/files/case-study-the-role-of-para-social-workers-in-creating-community-led-approaches-to-preventing-and-responding-to-child-abuse.pdf

Babington, B.K. (2015). For the benefit of children alone? A discourse analysis of policymaking relating to children’s institutions in Indonesia, 1999-2009 (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2ywCYKs

Baños-Smith, H. (2014). Children’s reintegration: Longitudinal study of children’s reintegration in Moldova. Family for Every Child. Retrieved from http://www.familyforeverychild.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Children-s_Reintegration_in_Moldova.pdf

Berens, A. E., & Nelson, C. A. (2015). The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children. The Lancet, 386(9991), 388-398.

Better Care Network, UNICEF and USAID (2015). An analysis of childcare reform in three African countries: A summary of findings. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2xbF0vE

Better Care Network, Family for Every Child, International Social Service, Save the Children, and SOS Children’s Villages International (2013). Identifying basic characteristics of formal alternative care settings for children: A discussion paper. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2hSw5IV

Bilson, A., & Larkins, C. (2013). Providing alternatives to infant institutionalisation in Bulgaria: How gatekeeping can benefit from a social development orientation. Children and Youth Services Review35(9), 1566-1575.

Boothby, N., Balster, R. L., Goldman, P., Wessells, M. G., Zeanah, C. H., Huebner, G., & Garbarino, J. (2012). Coordinated and evidence-based policy and practice for protecting children outside of family care. Child Abuse & Neglect36(10), 743-751.

Boothby, N., Wessells, M., Williamson, J., Huebner, G., Canter, K., Rolland, E. G., Kutlesic, V., Bader, F., Diaw, L., Levine, M., Malley, A., Michels, K., Patel, S., Rasa, T., Ssewamala, F., and Walker, V. (2012). What are the most effective early response strategies and interventions to assess and address the immediate needs of children outside of family care. Child Abuse & Neglect36(10), 711-721.

Bradford, B. on behalf of Better Care Network and Global Social Service Workforce Alliance. (2014). Working paper on the role of social service workforce development in care reform. Washington, DC: IntraHealth International.

Bradford, B. (2017). Transitioning to family care for children toolkit. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://www.faithtoaction.org/family-care-toolkit/

Brown, K. (2009). The risk of harm to young children in institutional care. London: Save the Children.

Bunkers, K., Cox, A., Gesiriech, S., & Olson, K. (2014). Children, orphanages, and families: A summary of research to help guide faith-based action. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Faith2Action_ResearchGuide_V9_WEB.pdf

Bunkers, K., Cox, A., Gesiriech, S., & Olson, K. (2014). Key research on orphanages and family care: An annotated bibliography. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Key-Research-Annotated-Bibliography.pdf

Bunkers, K. M., Mezmur, B. & Rotabi, K. S. (2012). Ethiopia: Intercountry adoption risks and considerations for informal care. In J. L. Gibbons & K. S. Rotabi (Eds.), Intercountry Adoption: Policies, Practices, and Outcomes. Ashgate Press: London

Cantwell N, Davidson J, Elsley S, Milligan I & Quinn, N. (2012). Moving forward: Implementing the ‘Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children’. UK: Centre for Excellence for Looked After Children in Scotland.

Costa, M. (2012). De-institutionalisation and quality alternative care for children in Europe: Lessons learned and the way forward. Brussels, Belgium: Eurochild. Retrieved from http://www.bevaikunamu.lt/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/DI_Lessons_Learned.pdf

Costa, M. & Giraldi, M. (2014). Opening doors for Europe’s children: Deinstitutionalisation and quality alternative care for children in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: Eurochild. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2gvGT34

Cox, A., Gesiriech, S., Olson, K., & Porter, K. (2015). A continuum of care for orphans and vulnerable children. Faith to Action. Retrieved from http://faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Faith2Action_ContinuumOfCare.pdf

Csaky, C. (2014). Why care matters: The importance of adequate care for children and society. Family for Every Child. Retrieved from: http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/sites/default/files/documents/why-care-matters-web.pdf

DeBerri, Edward P. and James E. Hug. (1985). Catholic social teaching, Our best kept secret. Washington DC: Center of Concern

European Expert Group on the Transition from Institutional to Community-based Care. (2012). Common European guidelines on the transition from institutional to community-based care. Retrieved from http://www.deinstitutionalisationguide.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/GUIDELINES-Final-English.pdf

Faith to Action Initiative. (2016). Transitioning to family care for children: A guidance manual. Retrieved from http://www.faithtoaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Transitioning-Care-Guidance-Manual.pdf

Frimpong‐Manso, K. (2017). The social support networks of care leavers from a children’s village in Ghana: formal and informal supports. Child & Family Social Work22(1), 195-202.

Gale, C. & Csaky, C.  (2015). Making decisions for the better care of children: The role of gatekeeping in strengthening family-based care. New York: Better Care Network & UNICEF. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2zqyOAq

Global Communities & Hope and Homes for Children. (2015). Key learning from the Ishema Mu Murango program. Retrieved from http://www.bettercarenetwork.org/library/principles-of-good-care-practices/leaving-alternative-care-and-reintegration/key-learnings-from-the-ishema-mu-muryango-program

Government of Republic of Kenya & UNICEF. (2014). Guidelines for the alternative family care of children in Kenya. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2rHst3z

Hainsworth, J., Pop, D. & Ammirati, B. (2014). Towards a stronger economic evidence base to support child protection reform: from institutions to family based care and community level services. Submission to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Report on Better Investment in the Rights of the Child. Eurochild, Hope and Homes for Children and SOS Children’s Villages. http://bit.ly/2BA5r0s

Inter-agency Group on Children’s Reintegration. (2016). Guidelines on children’s reintegration. Retrieved from: http://www.familyforeverychild.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/RG_Digital_DC-1.pdf

Januario, K., Hembling, J., Rytter, A. & Roby, J. (2016). Factors related to the placement into and reintegration of children from Catholic-affiliated residential care facilities in Zambia. Baltimore, MD: Catholic Relief Services.

Jenny, M. & Pythoud, S.R. (2016). A better future is possible: Promoting family life for children with disabilities in residential care. Manual for professionals. International Social Service. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://www.iss-ssi.org/images/practices/ISS-ManualEnglish.pdf

Knudsen, E. I., Heckman, J. J., Cameron, J. L., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2006). Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103(27), 10155-10162.

Krnic-Brkovic, N. (2015). Compendium of promising practices to ensure that children under the age of 3 grow up in a safe and supportive family environment. Geneva: UNICEF. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/UNICEF_Compendium_of_promising_practices_Web.pdf

Lumos. (2015). In our lifetime: How donors can end the institutionalisation of children. Retrieved from  https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/In%20Our%20Lifetime_2015_Sept2015_0.pdf

Lumos. (2014). Ending the institutionalisation of children globally: The time is now. Retrieved from https://wearelumos.org/sites/default/files/Lumos%20The%20Time%20is%20Now%20April2014%20FINAL.pdf

Mansell, J., Knapp, M., Beadle-Brown, J. & Beecham, J. (2007). Deinstitutionalisation and community living – outcomes and costs: report of a European study. LSE. Volume 2, Main Report. Canterbury: Tizard Centre, University of Kent. Retrieved from https://www.kent.ac.uk/tizard/research/DECL_network/documents/DECLOC_Volume_2_Report_for_Web.pdf

McCall, R.B., Groark, C.J., & Goldman, P. (n.d.). Research on institutionalized children: Principles for international child welfare practitioners and policy makers. Unpublished manuscript, Office of Child Development, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved from: http://www.ocd.pitt.edu/Default.aspx?webPageID=283

Mulheir, G. (2012). Deinstitutionalisation: a human rights priority for children with disabilities. The Equal Rights Review, 9: 117-137.

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